The ACE studies have been at the forefront of nearly every early childhood conference I’ve attended for the past couple of years. ACE is an acronym for adverse childhood experiences, such as domestic violence, divorce, death of a parent, family members’ substance abuse or mental health challenges. These studies have raised our understanding of both the high prevalence and long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences. Also, we’ve learned that children of various backgrounds and socio-economic levels can suffer adverse events. We are now aware that ACEs may occur in families from all walks of life. The initial ACE study at the Kaiser Permanente HMO in California in the late 1990s demonstrated that nearly two-thirds of the 17,000 participants reported at least 1 ACE and one-fifth reported 3 or more ACEs. As the number of ACEs increased, so did the likelihood of showing unhealthy behaviors and negative physical and mental health outcomes as adults. Subsequent studies have shown similar results in multiple populations, raising alarming public health concerns. It is important to note that the initial ACE study was done with the general population of people receiving HMO care, without selection for risk factors.